Functional Dependency with Example in Database Management System

In this lecture we are going to know details about functional dependency. If you don't know what is Functional Dependency in Database Management System then first please read this article.

Functional Dependency in Database Management System

What is Functional Dependency ? 

Suppose "S" is a database name and it has a table name  "X". Let it has two attributes "A" and "B" in this table. Now if B is an attribute that is functionally dependent on another attribute  that has two records whose values ​​are the same, then the value of the B attribute of two records must be same. Hope you will understand. 

It is functionally written like this:

A -> B that is, B depends on A. You can also say that A Determines B. Here A is called determinant and B is dependent.

Having trouble understanding? Notice the table below.


Suppose X and Y are two attributes with two records. Now say this table is a functionally dependent or not? The answer is no because we have already said that if the values ​​of A are the same, then the values ​​of B must be the same. But here the value of Y is different. So there is no X -> Y functional dependency.

There is an easy way to figure it out. Just think if I ask you what is the value of Y to the respect of A?  You can't tell because the values ​​of Y here different to the respect.of A.If both were 1 then you could easily tell that the value is 1. So keep in mind that functional dependency exists in those values ​​whose search is possible to identify values otherwise not. Remember that this work is not theoretical statement it is just a means of figuring out the easel.

Now we will look at a big example and try to find out who has functional dependency and who doesn't. Notice the table below with great attention


Now we will see that some of the above equations have functional dependencies.

A → BC : Look at it, for A , every value of BC is the same. And in a cell that doesn't have a same value , the value of A is also different in that room. So it's in our rules.That is for the same value of A , BC must have same values. And for different values ​​of A, BC can have different values ​​or same values.I hope you understand.

DE → C: Look at here, for same values of DE , C also contains same value and the same value of C for the different values ​​of DE. So it also satisfies our rules. So we can say it is also functionally dependent.

C → DE: Look at here all values ​​of C are the same .That's mean all the values ​​of DE must be same. But here it is not. So there is no functional dependency here.

BC→ A: Look at it for the seam value of BC , A also have same values and different for different values. So there is functional dependency.

I hope you have been able to understand very clearly.

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